that predicted over 2000 years of history!

On this page you will discover an extraordinary Bible prophecy that foretold not just an event here or there, but a continuous history of the world.

The Bible declares: “Remember the former things of old: for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me, Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure.” (Isaiah 46:9-10).

This is a bold claim, and my invitation to you is to examine the evidence for yourself and then come to an informed conclusion.

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In the book of Daniel 7, the prophet Daniel describes a vision in which he saw four beasts coming up out of the sea, and the four winds of heaven moving over the sea (verses 2 and 3). It must have been a remarkable sight, but what does it mean? First of all, we must understand that the beasts, the sea, and the winds are symbols explained in the Bible as follows:

wind = war
“Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Behold, evil shall go forth from nation to nation, and a great whirlwind shall be raised up from the coasts of the earth. And the slain of the Lord shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth.” (Jeremiah 25:32-33)
water, sea = nations
“And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” (Revelation 17:15)
beast = kingdom, king
“These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.” (Daniel 7:17)
“Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” (Daniel 7:23)
horn = kingdom, king
“And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.” (Daniel 7:24)
woman = church (Isaiah 54:5-6; Hosea 2:19-20; 2 Corinthians 11:2; John 3:29; Ephesians 5:25-27)
rock = Jesus (1 Corinthians 10:4; Psalm 95:1; Genesis 49:24; Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Samuel 22:47; Isaiah 28:16; Acts 4:11)

In other words, the four beasts rising up out of the sea in the midst of the four winds of heaven, represent four kingdoms rising up among the nations in the midst of strife and war.

But which kingdoms are these?

There is a principle in the Bible known as “repetition and enlargement”, where a statement or thought is repeated with additional details or from a different angle, thus giving additional insight into what is being said or explaining what the first thought meant. This principle is used throughout the Bible, including in Daniel 7, which is a repetition and enlargement of Daniel 2.

And in Daniel 2, we are told that in the second year of his reign, Nebuchadnezzar the Great, King of Babylon, had a dream in which he saw a great image in the form of a man, made of various materials, representing successive kingdoms in the history of the world: the head of gold, the chest and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass (bronze), the legs of iron, and the feet of iron and clay. Then a stone, cut out without hands, struck the image on the feet, broke it into pieces, and filled the earth.

The statue from king Nebuchadnezzar's dream (Daniel 2)

Let us take a closer look at these kingdoms or beasts described in Daniel 2 and Daniel 7.


Daniel explained to Nebuchadnezzar: “Thou, O king, art a king of kings … Thou art this head of gold …” (Daniel 2:37)

The first kingdom of Daniel 2, the head of gold, is the Babylonian Empire, known for its great wealth and splendor. It was a golden kingdom in a golden age. Babylon, its metropolis, rose to a height never reached by any of its successors. It had thick impregnable walls, magnificent temples and palaces, several miles of the Euphrates River irrigating lush gardens, and much more. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World listed by Hellenic culture.

In Daniel 7 (verse 4), this kingdom is represented as a lion with eagle wings. Archaeology reveals that Babylon used a lion with eagle wings as an emblem. It was found on Babylonian artifacts and was often depicted in battle with Marduk, the patron god of the city of Babylon. Jeremiah 4:7 also refers to Babylon as a lion.

A winged lion on glazed bricks from the Ishtar Gate, built in the ancient city of Babylon (British Museum).

Babylon is symbolized here as a fierce predator with the wings of a bird of prey. This represents its ferocity and strength and the speed of its conquests. But later its wings were plucked, it was made to stand on its feet, and it was given the heart of a man, which refers to the time when lesser rulers followed Nebuchadnezzar the Great in the kingdom of Babylon, rulers under whose administration Babylon lost its glory and power.

Map showing the extent of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (in yellow) during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar the Great (Jerusalem was conquered in 606 BC).


“… and after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee …” (Daniel 2:39)

The second kingdom of Daniel 2, the chest and arms of silver, is the Medo-Persian (Achaemenid) Empire. In 539 BC, the Persian king Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, laid siege to Babylon, the only city in all the East to resist him. The Babylonians gathered within their impregnable walls, with enough supplies to sustain a siege indefinitely. Realizing this, Cyrus used a clever stratagem: on the day of an annual Babylonian festival, he diverted the Euphrates River into a large artificial lake above the city, and sent troops marching into the city at night along the riverbed as soon as the water was shallow enough. Here is the historian Herodotus’ account of the events:

“Hereupon the Persians who had been left for the purpose at Babylon by the river-side, entered the stream, which had now sunk so as to reach about midway up a man’s thigh, and thus got into the town. Had the Babylonians been apprised of what Cyrus was about, or had they noticed their danger, they would never have allowed the Persians to enter the city, but would have destroyed them utterly; for they would have secured all the street- gates which gave upon the river, and mounting upon the walls along both sides of the stream, would so have caught the enemy as it were in a trap. But, as it was, the Persians came upon them by surprise and so took the city. Owing to the vast size of the place, the inhabitants of the central parts (as the residents of Babylon declare) long after the outer portions of the town were taken, knew nothing of what had happened, but as they were engaged in a festival, continued dancing and revelling until they learned of the capture. Such, then, were the circumstances of the first taking of Babylon.” (History, Herodotus, Book 1, 1.191)

In Daniel 7 (verse 5), this kingdom is represented as a bear raised up on one side with three ribs in its mouth. The Medo-Persian Empire was composed of the Medes and the Persians. The Persian division of the kingdom came up last, but attained the higher eminence and became the controlling influence in the nation, and thus was the bear raised up on one side. The three ribs in the bear’s mouth represent the three provinces of Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt that were conquered by this kingdom.

Medo-Persia (yellow) conquered and controlled 3 kingdoms: Sardis (Lydia, blue), Babylon (Chaldeans, dark green) and Egypt (light green).


“… and another third kingdom of brass …” (Daniel 2:39)

The third kingdom of Daniel 2, the belly and thigh of brass, is the Macedonian (Greek) Empire. In 334 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, invaded Achaemenid Persia and began a series of campaigns that lasted for 10 years. Following his conquest of Asia Minor, Alexander broke the power of Achaemenid Persia in a series of decisive battles, including those at Issus and Gaugamela; he subsequently overthrew Darius III, King of Persia, in 331 BC, and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. After the fall of Persia, the Macedonian Empire held a vast swath of territory between the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River. Alexander the Great was undefeated in battle and is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most successful military commanders in history. He died in Babylon in 323 BC at the age of 32, possibly from poisoning or heavy drinking. His empire was subsequently divided among his generals, who became known as the Diadochi, meaning “the successors,” and they fought each other in the Diadochi Wars.

In Daniel 7 (verse 6), this kingdom is represented as a leopard with four wings and four heads. Alexander’s conquests were famous for their speed and scale, and so the Macedonian Empire is symbolized by a leopard with four wings, denoting unparalleled speed of movement.

The Diadochi Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander’s successors, and the Battle of Ipsus, fought in 301 BC at the end of the Fourth Diadochi War, was the decisive conflict that completed the disintegration of Alexander’s empire. In this battle, the alliance of Lysimachus, Cassander, Ptolemy, and Seleucus defeated one of Alexander’s most powerful generals, Antigonus, and his son Demetrius, ending their bid to reunite the empire and gain complete control of it (Antigonus was killed in the battle). The victors divided the empire among themselves: Lysimachus became ruler of Thrace, Cassander ruled Macedonia, Ptolemy retained control of Egypt, and Seleucus ruled Persia and Syria. These divisions were represented by the four heads of the leopard.

Hellenistic successor kingdoms (the diadochi) following the death of Alexander the Great.


“And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.” (Daniel 2:40)

The fourth kingdom of Daniel 2, the legs of iron, is the Roman Empire. The Hellenistic period that followed the death of Alexander the Great was marked by constant power struggles, political intrigue, and betrayal, which facilitated the rapid expansion of the Roman Republic. In 168 BC, the Romans defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna. In 146 BC and 86 BC, the Romans seized the rebellious city of Corinth, killed all the men, sold the women into slavery, and destroyed the city as an example. Caesar Augustus was the first emperor of the Roman Imperial period; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD, and expanded the Roman Empire into Egypt, North Africa, and most of Western Europe. Jesus-Christ was born during his reign and was assassinated during the reign of his stepson, Tiberius Caesar.

Map of the Roman Empire under Caesar Augustus (green).

In Daniel 7 (verse 7), this kingdom is described as a dreadful and strong beast with iron teeth. Notice the similarities between the description of the fourth kingdom in Daniel 2:40 and the description of the fourth beast in Daniel 7:7:

Daniel 2:40

“And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.”

Daniel 7:7

“Behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it…”


The ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise.” (Daniel 7:24)

During the 4th and 5th centuries, numerous Germanic peoples from the north and east migrated into the Western Roman Empire, which finally collapsed in 476 AD when the Germanic military leader Odoacer deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus and became the first Barbarian king of Italy. By the end of the 5th century, the former Western Roman Empire had been divided into ten major Germanic kingdoms (some of which still exist today), as listed below:


















Rooted up and destroyed

Rooted up and destroyed

Rooted up and destroyed

The ten divisions of the Western Roman Empire in 490 AD.


Then there arose among the ten horns a little horn, before whom three fell, whose appearance was more stout than that of his fellows (verse 20), who was different from the other ten, who had eyes like those of a man and a mouth that spoke great words against the Most High (blasphemy), who persecuted the saints, who tried to change times and laws, and to whom a period was given that is described as “a time, and times, and half of a time” (verse 25).


“I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots:” (Daniel 7:8)

Note: Although lengthy, the following subsections a) and b) provide the historical context that is necessary for the proper identification of the little horn.

a) Three horns plucked up by the roots

The three horns plucked by the roots are three kingdoms that had risen from the ten divisions of the Western Roman Empire (see map) and were then destroyed and disappeared. These are the Germanic kingdoms of Odoacer, the Ostrogoths, and the Vandals.

The Vandals were a Germanic people who established a kingdom in North Africa. They are best known for their sacking of Rome in 455 AD, which led to the use of the term “vandalism” to describe the deliberate destruction or damage of public or private property. When the Vandals were about to enter Rome, Pope Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome, is said to have begged their king to refrain from murder and destruction by fire and to content himself with plundering the city, which he did for several days.

While the sack of Rome did not directly lead to the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the resulting blow to Roman prestige along with the disruption of the Imperial government and the economic loss contributed greatly to the end of Roman authority in the west. As Roman fortunes waned, the Vandal kingdom in North Africa grew in power and influence. Several Roman invasions of North Africa were defeated, and Vandal raiders sailed across the Mediterranean. The Vandals would rule North Africa until 533 AD, when a resurgent Eastern Roman Empire led by Justinian and his general Belisarius destroyed them.

The final dissolution of the Western Roman Empire came in 476 AD, when Odoacer, a Germanic military leader from the East and head of an army of Herulian soldiers, deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself “Rex Italiae” (Latin for “King of Italy”). Odoacer had the support of the Roman Senate, but relations with the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno were precarious and deteriorated even further as he prepared to intervene in the East on the side of the anti-Zeno party. In response, Emperor Zeno turned Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths–a Germanic people living on the eastern flank of the Western Roman Empire–against Odoacer in an attempt to drive him out of Italy. Odoacer was defeated in 493, and the Ostrogoths ruled largely unchallenged in his place until the reconquest of Italy by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian and his general Belisarius during the Gothic Wars, which began in 535 and ended with the final destruction of the Ostrogothic kingdom in 554.

It should be noted that the Heruli, Vandals, and Ostrogoths were Arian Christians, and that there were strong disagreements between Arians and Roman Catholics, especially over the divine nature of Jesus Christ, to the point that they often violently persecuted each other. Historian Johann Lorenz von Mosheim further explains:

“It is true that the Greeks who had received the decrees of the Council of Nicaea [that is, the Roman Catholics], persecuted and oppressed the Arians wherever their influence and authority could reach; but the Nicenians, in their turn, were not less rigorously treated by their adversaries [the Arians], particularly in Africa and Italy, where they felt, in a very severe manner, the weight of the Arian power, and the bitterness of hostile resentment. The triumphs of Arianism were, however, transitory, and its prosperous days were entirely eclipsed when the Vandals were driven out of Africa, and the Goths out of Italy, by the arms of Justinian.” (Church History, Mosheim, cent.6, part 2, chap.5, sec.3.)

In 535, Emperor Justinian sent his most talented general, Belisarius, to reclaim Italy. This was the beginning of the Gothic Wars, which lasted until 554. Belisarius took Sicily in 535, then Naples and Rome in 536. By then the Ostrogoths had retreated to Ravenna, their capital, but in March 537 they besieged Rome until Byzantine reinforcements forced them to withdraw in March 538. As the siege of Rome began, Belisarius deposed the bishop of Rome, Silverius, who was accused of conspiring with the Ostrogoths, and replaced him with Vigilius, who is considered the first pope of the Byzantine papacy. Silverius had been appointed Bishop of Rome by the Ostrogothic king Theodahad in 536, and is considered the last pope of the Ostrogothic papacy. He died in exile on December 2, 537.

The Gothic Wars continued for several years until the final destruction of the Ostrogothic kingdom in 554.

b) Italy in the aftermath of the Gothic wars

Although Justinian conquered much of Italy in his victorious campaign against the Ostrogoths, the country was devastated and largely depopulated as a result of the war. The war and the deadly plague of 540-541 also depleted Byzantine resources, and the empire was seriously threatened in the east.

The Byzantine Empire faced constant challenges in maintaining control of Italy, especially when the Lombards, a Germanic people from the north, began migrating across the Alps into the Italian peninsula in 568. The Lombards initially met with little resistance and quickly established a kingdom in northern Italy, with its capital in Pavia. Over the next few decades, the Lombards expanded their territory southward, conquering much of central Italy and parts of the south. They established a number of duchies, each ruled by a duke appointed by the Lombard king.

To meet these challenges, the Byzantine Emperor Maurice established the Exarchate of Ravenna in 584. The Exarchate was centered around the city of Ravenna, which had served as the capital of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. It was governed by an exarch, appointed by the emperor, who had broad administrative and military authority over the territory.

In Rome, however, the papacy had long since emerged as a powerful institution, with popes seen as spiritual leaders who also wielded political power, which grew tremendously as the Byzantine Empire declined in strength.

The Byzantines (orange) and the Lombards (cyan) in 590 AD.

In 751, the Lombards captured Ravenna, ending the Exarchate’s control over much of Italy and leaving the Pope without a powerful ally to defend Rome. To counter the Lombard threat, Pope Zachary, bishop of Rome, sought an alliance with the Frankish king Pepin the Short, who, with the approval of the papacy and the aristocracy, had just recently overthrown the Merovingian dynasty (in 751) to become the first Carolingian king of the Franks. In return for Pepin’s support, Pope Zachary went to St-Denis, near Paris, in 754 and formed a firm alliance of friendship with Pepin. In the abbey church of St-Denis, Pope Zachary anointed Pepin and, under threat of excommunication, allegedly bound the Franks never again to choose their kings from any other family than the Carolingians. At the same time, he conferred on Pepin and his sons (Charlemagne and Carloman I, also anointed at St-Denis in 754) the title of “Patrician of the Romans,” which had been held by the exarchs, the highest Byzantine officials in Italy. In their place, the king of the Franks would become the protector of the Romans and their bishop. The Italian historian Niccolò Macchiavelli confirms:

“The other parts of that [Byzantine] Empire being infested [by invading Persians, Saracens and Turks] … : the Pope lost the convenience of the Emperor’s protection in time of Adversity, and the power of the Lombards increasing too fast on the other side, he thought it but necessary to address himself to the King of France for assistance; so that the Wars which happened afterwards in Italy were occasioned by the Popes and the several inundations of Barbarians invited by them; which manner of proceeding having continued to our times, has held, and does still hold, Italy divided and infirm.” (The History of Florence, Machiavellil, p. 48)

Lombard territories in 756 before the donation of Pepin.

Pepin led two successful campaigns against the Lombards in 754 and 756, conquering large parts of central Italy. In 756, Pepin formally donated the conquered territories to the papacy. This act is known as the “Donation of Pepin” and formed the basis of the Papal States, a region in central Italy that remained under papal control until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. It gave the Pope greater temporal and political power and influence in Italy, and made him a major player in medieval Europe.

The Papal States in 1790.

c) The little horn

Historian Merle d’Aubigné, J. H. wrote: “Princes whom these stormy times often shook upon their thrones, offered their protection if Rome would in its turn support them. They conceded to her the spiritual authority, provided she would make a return in secular power. They were lavish of the souls of men, in the hope that she would aid them against their enemies. The power of the hierarchy, which was ascending, and the imperial power, which was declining, leaned thus one upon the other, and by this alliance accelerated their twofold destiny. Rome could not lose by it. An edict of Theodosius II and of Valerian III proclaimed the Roman bishop ‘rector of the whole church.’ Justinian published a similar decree.” (Merle D’Aubigné J. H., History of the Reformation, 1794, book 1, chap.1, pp. 10)

And historian De Clercq V. C. wrote: “The religious division, added to the ethnic antagonism, retarded the unification of the Roman and barbarian peoples; but gradually the Catholic Church succeeded in eliminating Arianism. In some instances this was achieved by military action that all but wiped out the Germanic element: in [533] the Vandals in Africa were utterly destroyed by the armies of Justinian I; and in 552 the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy suffered a similar fate. By peaceful means and through the action of [Bishop] Avitus of Vienne, the Burgundians in southwestern Gaul had accepted Catholicism in 517, under King Sigismund […]” (DE CLERCQ, V. C. “Arianism .” New Catholic Encyclopedia. . (January 01, 2023))

The papacy is the little horn of Daniel 7. The Arian kingdoms of Odoacer, the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths–the three horns plucked up by the roots–were holding back this power, whose seat of authority is Rome. After the elimination of these three kingdoms, the power of the little horn grew with the help of the Byzantine Empire and the Frankish Kingdom: the mixing of church and state, which is symbolized by the mixing of clay and iron in the feet of the statue in Daniel 2, was a defining characteristic of the Middle Ages. The papacy is also “different” from the other horns (verse 24) in that it is primarily a religious power (see Appendix 1 for the Edict of Justinian, which made the Bishop of Rome the head of all churches).

“Ẅhen the Roman Empire had disintegrated and its place had been taken by a number of rude, barbarous kingdoms, the Roman Catholic church became independent of the state in religious affairs but dominated secular affairs as well. At times, under such rulers as Charlemagne (768–814), Otto the Great (936–73), and Henry III (1039–56), the civil power controlled the church to some extent; but in general, under the weak political system of feudalism, the well-organized, unified, and centralized church, with the pope at its head, was not only independent in ecclesiastical affairs but also controlled civil affairs.” (The Papacy and World Affairs, Carl Conrad Eckhardt, p. 1 (other version here))

“Out of the ruins of political Rome, arose the great moral Empire in the “giant form” of the Roman Church.” (A. C. Flick, The Rise of the Medieval Church [1900], p. 150)

“If a man consider the origin of this great Ecclesiasticall Dominion, he will easily perceive, that the Papacy, is no other, than the Ghost of the deceased Roman Empire, sitting crowned upon the grave thereof : For so did the Papacy start up on a Sudden out of the Ruines of that Heathen Power.” (Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes, 1651, pp. 544)

“The vicar of the incarnate Son of God, anointed high priest, and supreme temporal ruler [the pope] sat in his tribunal, impartially to judge between nation and nation, between people and prince, between sovereign and subject.” (Cardinal Henry Manning “The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ”, 1862, pp. 46)

The Triregnum (the Papal Tiara formed by three crowns symbolizing the triple power of the Pope: father of kings, governor of the world and Vicar of Christ) from the XVIII Century, with which the bronze statue of Saint Peter is crowned every June 29th, the feast day of the Saint.
(Holy See Press Office – “Tiara”. . (January 01, 2023))

Note: The “Pontifex Maximus” (Latin for “Supreme Pontiff”) was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Latin: Collegium Pontificum) in ancient pagan Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient pagan Roman religion. Originally a distinctly religious office, it was later subsumed into the position of emperor in the Roman imperial period. Augustus Caesar was the first Roman emperor to take the title, and subsequent emperors were called Pontifex Maximus well into late antiquity. The word pontifex is commonly interpreted as meaning “bridge-builder” (from the latin: pons + facere), and its derivative “pontiff” became terms used for Roman Catholic bishops. The title of Pontifex Maximus was applied to the pope as the head bishop of the Roman Catholic Church, appearing on buildings, monuments and coins of popes of Renaissance and modern times. Current titles for the pope include “Bishop of Rome” and “Pontifex Maximus,” among others.


“… and he shall speak great words against the most High,” (Daniel 7:25)

Said Pope Nicholas to Emperor Michael: “The pope can never be bound or loosed by the secular power, since it is plain that he was called God by the pious prince Constantine; . . . and it is manifest that God can not be judged by man.”
Satis euidenter ostenditur, a seculari potestate nec solui prorsus, nec ligari Pontificem, quem constat a pio principe Constantino (quem longe superius memorauimus) Deum appellatum, cum nec posse Deum ab hominibus iudicari manifestum sit.
(Decretum, pars prima (Part One), Distinctio XCVI, Canon 7)

“Thus the priest may, in a certain manner, be called the creator of his Creator, since by saying the words of consecration, he creates, as it were, Jesus in the sacrament, by giving him a sacramental existence, and produces him as a victim to be offered to the eternal Father. As in creating the world it was sufficient for God to have said, Let it be made, and it was created -He spoke, and they were made- so it is sufficient for the priest to say, “Hoc est corpus meum”, and behold the bread is no longer bread, but the body of Jesus Christ. The power of the priest, says St. Bernardine of Sienna, is the power of the divine person; for the transubstantiation of the bread requires as much power as the creation of the world… As the Word of God created heaven and earth, so, says St. Jerome, the words of the priest create Jesus Christ.” (St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Dignity and Duties of the Priest, pp. 32-33)

“And God himself is obliged to abide by the judgment of his priest and either not to pardon or to pardon, according as they refuse or give absolution, provided the penitent is capable of it.” (St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Duties and Dignities of the Priest, pp. 27)

“The Pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth with most ample power of binding and loosing his sheep.”
“Papa jus divinum potest modificare, cum ejus potestas non sit ex homine, sed ex Deo, et in terris Dei vices fungitur com amplissima potestate oves suas ligandi, et solvendi”
(Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Biblioteca, Papa, art. 2, subsection 30)

“The Saviour Himself is the door of the sheepfold: ‘I am the door of the sheep.’ Into this fold of Jesus Christ, no man may enter unless he be led by the Sovereign Pontiff; and only if they be united to him can men be saved, for the Roman Pontiff is the Vicar of Christ and His personal representative on earth.”
“Ipse ovilis ostium est: « Ego sum ostium ovium ». Hoc in Iesu Christi ovile, nonnisi Summo Pontifice ductore, quisquam ingredi potest; et homines turn solummodo, cum ei coniunguntur, tuto possunt salvi fieri, quandoquidem Romanus Pontifex Vicarius est Christi, eiusque in terris personam gerit.”
(Pope John XXIII in his homily to the Bishops and faithful assisting at his coronation on November 4, 1958)
SEE JOHN 6:44-45, JOHN 14:6, ACTS 4:10-12

“All names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that He is over the church, all the same names are applied to the Pope.”
“Secunde probatur ratione, in Scripturis fundata; nam omnia nomina, quae in Scripturis tribuuntur Christo, unde constat eum esse supra Ecclesiam, eadem omnia tribuuntur Pontifici.”
(Robert Bellarmine, A De Conciliorum Auctoritate [On the Authority of Councils], Controversiarum de Conciliis, Liber Secundis: Qui est de Conciliorum Auctoritate, chap. 17, 1628 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 269)

“The Pope is of so great dignity, and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were God and the vicar of God.”
“Papa tantae est dignitatis et cesitudinis, ut non sit simplex homo, sed quasi Deus, et Vicarius Dei.”
(Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Biblioteca, Papa, art. 2, subsection 1)

“The pope is in fact himself the vicar of the son of God.”
“Est enim ipse papa Dei filii vicarius.”

(Augustinus Triumphus (1243-1328), Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Question 61 Ad 1 (1582 edition))

“The Vicar of the incarnate Son of God, anointed high priest, and supreme temporal ruler [the pope] sat in his tribunal, impartially to judge between nation and nation, between people and prince, between sovereign and subject.” (Cardinal Henry Manning “The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ”, 1862, pp. 46)

“The supreme teacher in the Church is the Roman Pontiff. Union of minds, therefore, requires, together with a perfect accord in the one faith, complete submission and obedience of will to the Church and to the Roman Pontiff, as to God Himself.” (Pope Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter, “On the Chief Duties of Christians as Citizens”, dated January 10, 1890, trans. in The Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII, pp. 193)

“We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty.” (Pope Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter of June 20, 1894, trans. in The Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII, pp. 304)

“Have no fear when people call me the “Vicar of Christ,” when they say to me “Holy Father,” or “Your Holiness,” or use titles similar to these, which seem even inimical to the Gospel.” (Pope John Paul II, Crossing the Threshold of Hope (New York: Alfred A. Knoff. 1995))

Dr. Adam Clarke, a prominent 19th-century Methodist theologian, says of Daniel 7:25: “‘He shall speak as if he were God.’ So St. Jerome quotes from Symmachus. To none can this apply so well or so fully as to the popes of Rome. They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess to forgive sins, which belongs only to God. They profess to open and shut heaven, which belongs only to God. They profess to be higher than all the kings of the earth, which belongs only to God. And they go beyond God in pretending to loose whole nations from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such kings do not please them. And they go against God when they give indulgences for sin. This is the worst of all blasphemies.” (Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Holy Bible)


“… and shall wear out the saints of the most High,” (Daniel 7:25)

Commenting on the prophecy that the little horn would “wear out the saints of the Most High,” Barnes, a prominent 19th-century Presbyterian theologian, says in his notes on Dan. 7:25: “Can any one doubt that this is true of the papacy? The Inquisition, the persecutions of the Waldenses, the ravages of the Duke of Alva, the fires of Smithfield, the tortures of Goa, – indeed, the whole history of the papacy, may be appealed to in proof that this is applicable to that power. If anything could have worn out the saints of the Most High, – could have cut them off from the earth so that evangelical religion would have become extinct, – it would have been the persecutions of the papal power. In year 1208 a crusade was proclaimed by Pope Innocent III against the Waldenses and Albigenses, in which a million men perished. From the beginning of the order of Jesuits in the year 1540 to 1580, nine hundred thousand were destroyed. One hundred and fifty thousand perished by the Inquisition in thirty years. In the Low Countries fifty thousand persons were hanged, beheaded, burned, or buried alive, for the crime of heresy, within the space of thirty-eight years from the edict of Charles V against the Protestants to the peace of Chateau Cambresis in 1559. Eighteen thousand suffered by the hand of the executioner in the space of five years and a half, during the administration of the Duke of Alva. Indeed, the slightest acquaintance with the history of the papacy will convince any one that what is here said of ‘making war with the saints’ (verse 21), and ‘wearing out the saints of the Most High’ (verse 25), is strictly applicable to that power, and will accurately describe its history.” (See Buck’s Theological Dictionary, art., Persecutions: Oswald’s Kingdom, etc., pp.107-133; Dowling’s History of Romanism; Fox’s Book of Martyrs: Charlotte Elizabeth’s Martyrology; The Wars of the Huguenots; The Great Red Dragon, by Anthony Gavin, formerly one of the Roman Catholic priests of Saragossa, Spain; Histories of the Reformation, etc.)


“… and think to change times and laws:” (Daniel 7:25)

What laws and whose? Not the laws of other earthly governments; for it was nothing marvelous or strange for one power to change the laws of another, whenever it could bring such power under its dominion. Not human laws of any kind; for the little horn had power to change these so far as its jurisdiction extended; but the times and laws in question were such that this power should only think of changing them, but not be able to change them. They are the laws of the same Being to whom the saints belong who are worn out by this power; namely, the laws of the Most High. And has the papacy tried to do this? – Yes, even this. In its catechisms, it has erased the second commandment of the Decalogue in order to make way for its worship of images. It has divided the tenth commandment to make up the number ten. And, more audaciously than all, it has taken the fourth commandment, torn out the Sabbath of Jehovah, the only memorial of the great God ever given to man, and erected in its place a rival institution to serve a different purpose.

“The Pope is of so great authority and power, that he is able to modify, declare, or interpret even divine laws.”
“Papa tantae est auctoritatis et potestatis, ut possit quoque leges divinas modificare, declarare, vel interpretari, ad num.
(Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Biblioteca, Papa, art. 2, subsection 30)

“The Pope can modify divine law, since his power is not of man but of God, and he acts as vicegerent of God upon earth with most ample power of binding and loosing his sheep.”
“Papa jus divinum potest modificare, cum ejus potestas non sit ex homine, sed ex Deo, et in terris Dei vices fungitur com amplissima potestate oves suas ligandi, et solvendi”
(Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Biblioteca, Papa, art. 2, subsection 30)

Q. Have you any other way of proving that the Church has power to institute festivals of precept?
A. Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her;—she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority.
(Rev. Stephan Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, p. 174, Imprimatur, John Cardinal McCloskey, archbishop of New York)

“The Church, … after changing the day of rest from the Jewish Sabbath, or seventh day of the week, to the first, made the third [actually fourth] commandment refer to Sunday as the day to be kept holy as the Lord’s Day.” (Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, Commandments, p.153)

Q. Have you any other proofs that they (Protestants) are not guided by the Scripture?
A. Yes; so many, that we cannot admit more than a mere specimen into this small work. They reject much that is clearly contained in Scripture, and profess more that is nowhere discoverable in that Divine Book.
Q. Give some examples of both?
A. They should, if the Scripture were their only rule, wash the feet of one another, according to the command of Christ, in the 13th chap. of St. John; —they should keep, not the Sunday, but the Saturday, according to the commandment, “Remember thou keep holy the SABBATH-day;” for this commandment has not, in Scripture, been changed or abrogated;…
(Rev. Stephen Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, page 101, Imprimatur, John Cardinal McCloskey, archbishop of New York)

“You may read the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify.” (Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of our Father, p. 97 in the 93rd edition / p. 72 in the 110th edition)

“The primitive Christians did keep the Sabbath of the Jews;…therefore the Christians, for a long time together, did keep their conventions upon the Sabbath, in which some portions of the law were read: and this continued till the time of the Laodicean council.” (The Whole Works of Jeremy Taylor, Vol. IX, p. 416 / [R. Heber’s Edition, Vol XII, p. 416])

“Question: Which is the Sabbath day?
Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath day.
Question: Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
Answer: We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the Council of Laodicea (336 AD), transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday.”
(Peter Geiermann, The Convert’s Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, p.50)


“… and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.” (Daniel 7:25)

The little horn was given “a time, and times, and half of a time,” to wear out the saints (verse 25). The saints are symbolized in Revelation 12:14 as a faithful woman, meaning a faithful church (as opposed to the corrupt woman of Revelation 17), who fled from Satan (Revelation 12:9) into the “wilderness” for “a time, and times, and half a time”: “And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.” (Revelation 12:14). This time period is explained in Revelation 12:6: “And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and sixty days.” The same time period is mentioned again differently in Revelation 13:5: “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.” (42×30=1260). These verses above are more examples of the principle of “repetition and enlargement” explained earlier.

There is another principle in the Bible known as the “day-year” principle, where a prophetic day is used to symbolize a literal year (Numbers 14:33-34; Ezekiel 4:4-6).

For example, the day-year principle is used in the prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27, also known as the seventy weeks prophecy, which we will briefly examine. This prophecy foretold that 69 prophetic weeks or 483 prophetic days would elapse between the decree for the restoration of Jerusalem (which had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 BC) and the anointing of the “Messiah” (from the Hebrew word for “anointed,” translated in Greek as “Χριστός” (Christ)).
If we take the decree promulgated by the Persian king Artaxerxes I in the seventh year of his reign in 457 BC (Ezra 7:7-26), the first decree granting full autonomy to the Jewish state after the Babylonian captivity (Ezra 7:23-26), and add 483 years to that date, we arrive at 27 AD. This is the year in which Jesus Christ was baptized and anointed with the Holy Spirit, marking the beginning of His public ministry (see Luke 3:1-3, 21-22 / Luke 4:1, 16-21 / Mark 1:9-15 / Acts 10:37-38), which lasted about 3 ½ years until His crucifixion in the middle of the last prophetic week (Isaiah 53:8).
The voluntary sacrifice of Christ was the antitypical fulfillment of the Jewish sacrifices (see John 1:29, Hebrews 4:14-19 / Hebrews 8:1-6 / Hebrews 9:11-15), and the tearing of the Temple veil by an unseen hand at the instant of Christ’s death was heaven’s announcement that the sacrifices and oblations had lost their significance (Matthew 27:50-51).
Jesus, who was the messenger of the covenant (Malachi 3:1), confirmed the covenant with the Jewish people in the last prophetic week, that is, the last seven literal years (see Jeremiah 31:31-33 / Exodus 24:6-8 / Deuteronomy 18:15 / Hebrews 9:11-28 / Luke 22:20 / Malachi 3:1-4 / Hebrews 8:5-6 / Isaiah 42:1, 6 / Acts 2:36-41 / Acts 3:17-26 / Acts 4:33 / Acts 5:42), but the religious leaders of the Jewish nation persisted in their rejection of Christ and persecuted those who believed in Him, and the gospel of Jesus Christ which they had rejected was preached to the Gentiles (Acts 7:55-60 / Acts 8:1-4 / Acts 9:1-15 / Acts 10:1-6, 34-35, 44-45), for “God shows no partiality: But in every nation whoever fears Him and works righteousness is accepted by Him” (Acts 10:34-35 / Matthew 28:19-20 / 1 Corinthians 12:13 / Galatians 3:28 / Revelation 14:6-7 / Isaiah 56:1-8).
Verse 26 of Daniel 9 has a two-part structure: the first part relates to the death of the Messiah, while the second part relates to the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem. Verse 27 expands on verse 26 while maintaining the same two-part structure.
Verse 24 explains that seventy prophetic weeks were given to the Jewish people and the city of Jerusalem to “make reconciliation for sin.” Jesus may have been alluding to this when he said that a brother’s sin should be forgiven “seventy times seven” (Matthew 18:22), and as he was agonizing on the cross, in the middle of the seventieth prophetic week, he declared: “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34; Acts 2:36-41).
The second part of verses 26 and 27 foretold the destruction of the city and the temple of Jerusalem, but only after the completion of the seventy prophetic weeks of reconciliation (which began with the decree for the restoration of Jerusalem) could the prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem be fulfilled. Jesus was most likely alluding to this when he declared (emphasis added):
“When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)” (Matthew 24:15)
“For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee on every side. And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.” (Luke 19:43-44)
“And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! For there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people.” (Luke 21:20-23)
“Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? … Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.” (Matthew 23:32, 36-38)
Jesus also declared “An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.” (Matthew 12:39-41)
And Jesus repeated a second time: A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.” (Matthew 16:4)
Who is the prophet Jonas (Jonah) and why is he mentioned by Jesus?
Jonah was a prophet sent by God to Nineveh in Assyria to warn the people of the coming overthrow of their city. Jonah went on a three-day journey through the city, warning that it would be overthrown in forty days, but after one day’s journey, the people of Nineveh believed and repented, and the city was not overthrown (Jonah 3:1-10).
Jesus, who was greater than Jonah, came from heaven to earth to Judea and began His public ministry in 27 AD, preaching: “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel” (Mark 1:15). Jesus made his statements about the then-future destruction of Jerusalem near the end of his public ministry, most likely in 30 AD. But the religious leaders of the Jewish nation rejected him (Luke 19:47-48) and demanded that the Roman authorities crucify him (Luke 23:21), declaring: “Away with him, away with him, crucify him … We have no king but Caesar” (John 19:15). Forty years later (in 70 AD), Caesar’s army destroyed both the city and the temple of Jerusalem (see also Psalm 95:10).

The day-year principle is also used in Daniel 7 and Revelation 12-13: the prophetic “time and times and half of a time,” or three-and-a-half prophetic years, or 42 prophetic months, or 1260 prophetic days, correspond to 1260 literal years.

The edict of the emperor Justinian, dated 533 AD (see appendix 1), made the Bishop of Rome the head of all the churches. But this edict could not go into effect until the Arian Ostrogoths, the last of the three horns that were plucked up to make room for the papacy, were driven out of Rome; and this, as already shown, was not accomplished until 538 AD. The edict would have been of no effect had this latter event not been accomplished. Therefore, we must reckon from this latter year, for this was the earliest point at which the saints were actually in the hand of this power. From that point on, the papacy held supremacy for twelve hundred and sixty years: For 538 + 1260 = 1798; and in February 1798, Berthier, with a French army, entered Rome, proclaimed a republic, took the pope prisoner, and for a time abolished the papacy. Thus, once again, this power fulfills to the very letter the specifications of the prophecy, which proves beyond question that the application is correct.

F-6) THE JUDGEMENT (DANIEL 7:9-14, 26-27)

The fourth terrible beast continues without change of character, and the little horn continues to utter its blasphemies, and to hold its millions of votaries in the bonds of a blind superstition, until the beast is delivered up to the burning flame; and this is not its conversion, but its destruction.

The life of the fourth beast is not prolonged after its dominion is gone, as was the life of the previous beasts. Their dominion was taken away, but their lives were prolonged for a time. The territory and subjects of the Babylonian kingdom still existed, though made subject to the Persians. So of the Persian kingdom in respect to Grecia, and of Grecia in respect to Rome. But what is the successor of the fourth kingdom? No government or state in which mortals have any part. Its career ends in the lake of fire, and it has no existence beyond that. The lion was merged into the bear; the bear into the leopard; the leopard into the fourth beast (Revelation 13:1-2, Revelation 17:3); and the fourth beast into what? Not into another beast; but it is cast into the lake of fire, under which destruction it rests until men shall suffer the second death.

The little horn of Daniel 7 and the beast of Revelation 13 symbolize the same power (see Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 13:5-7). In Revelation 14:6-12 we are warned not to receive the mark of the beast. To find out what that mark is, read Bible Study #14.


“I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” (Daniel 7:13-14).

The expression “like the son of man,” meaning “human in form,” is used here to refer to Jesus-Christ, while the expression “ancient of days” refers to God the Father. Very soon, God will destroy all the kingdoms of the earth (Daniel 2:35, 44) and restore a sinless world where “there shall be no more death, no more sorrow, no more crying, no more pain.” (Revelation 21:4). If you believe in Jesus-Christ and make Him Lord of your life, you are promised eternal life and a place in His everlasting kingdom to come. Will you choose life?


The following is a portion of the text from the letter of “The Conqueror Justinian, Pious, Fortunate, Renowned, Triumphant, Ever Augustus, to the Most Holy John, Archbishop and Patriarch of the Generous City of Rome”:

“Rendering honor to the Apostolic See and to Your Holiness, which has always been and remains Our wish, as it ought to be, and honoring Your Blessedness as a father, We hasten to bring to the notice of Your Holiness everything concerning the status of the churches, since We have always greatly desired to preserve the unity of Your Apostolic See and to maintain the status of the Holy Churches of God, as it has heretofore prevailed and continues undisturbed without the interference of anything to the contrary. We have therefore hastened to make all priests of the whole Orient subject to the See of Your Holiness and to unite them with it. And We therefore deemed it necessary to bring to the notice of Your Holiness what action presently has been taken here, although it is clear and unquestioned and has ever been resolutely observed and preached by all priests in accord with the teaching of Your Apostolic See. For We permit no action to be taken concerning the status of the churches, however clear and unquestioned it may be, but that it should come to the notice of Your Holiness, because You are the head of all holy churches. For in all ways, as stated, We strive to increase the honor and authority of Your See.

Given June 6, at Constantinople, in the consulship of Our Lord Justinian, Ever Augustus, for the third time (533).”

(Codex of Justinian, ed. Frier, tr. Blume, First Book, 1.8, pp. 33, Cambridge University Press)

The following is a portion of the text from the letter of “John, Bishop of the City of Rome, to his Most Glorious and Most Merciful Son, Emperor Justinian”:

“Amid the glowing praise of the wisdom of Your Mildness, Most Christian of Emperors, there shines with an especially pure light, like that of a star, the fact that You, in Your zeal for the faith and Your Christian charity, well instructed in the teachings of the Church, keep (Your) reverence of the See of Rome, submit everything to it, and lead everything to its unity; to whose founder, that is, the First of the Apostles, Our Lord gave this precept: “Feed my sheep.”

That this See is truly the head of all churches, both the regulations of the fathers and the statutes of emperors declare, as the most reverent utterances of Your Piety also attest. It is clear, therefore, that in You will be fulfilled what the scriptures say: “By me kings reign and the powerful decree justice.” For there is nothing that burns with a brighter light than correct faith in an emperor; there is nothing less subject to decline than true religion. For as both behold the author of life or light, they rightly both reject darkness and know not how to succumb to eclipse. Wherefore, Most Glorious of Emperors, divine might will be entreated in all our prayers, so that it may, without fail, long preserve Your Piety in this ardor of faith, in this devotion of mind, in this zeal for untainted religion. We believe this is also for the good of the holy churches. For it is written, “the king rules by his lips,” and again: “the king’s heart is in the hand of God: He turneth it whithersoever He will.” For it is this that strengthens Your rule; this that preserves Your reign. For the peace of the Church, the unity of religion protect its author with grateful tranquility, when he has been borne up on high (after death). For no small thanks will be bestowed by divine might on him through whom the Church has been divided and sundered by no cracks; through whom it has been tainted by no blemishes. For it is written: “because when a just king sits upon his throne, no evil will oppose him.”

We moreover have received with accustomed reverence the letter of Your Serenity from Hypatius and Demetrius, most reverend men, my brothers and co-bishops. We also learned from this report that You, in Your ardor for the faith, in accord with apostolic teaching and with the consent of Our brothers and co-bishops, issued an edict to the peoples of the faithful to destroy the designs of the heretics. Since this edict conforms to apostolic doctrine, We confirm it by Our authority.

Given March 25, in Rome, in the consulship of Our Lord Justinian, Ever Augustus, for the fourth time, and of the vir clarissimus Paulinus the Younger (534).”

(Codex of Justinian, ed. Frier, tr. Blume, First Book, 1.7-1.8, pp. 31, Cambridge University Press)